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Ancient DNA and the new science of the human past~wikiipedia
Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens.[1][2] There is no definitive age to define historic or ancient DNA, but includes genetic material recovered from archaeological and historical skeletal material, mummified tissues, archival collections of non-frozen medical specimens, preserved plant remains, ice and permafrost cores as well as marine and lake sediments.

Due to degradation processes (including cross-linking, deamination and fragmentation) ancient DNA is of lower quality in comparison with modern genetic material.[3] The damage characteristics and ability of aDNA to survive through time restricts possible analyses and places an upper limit on the age of successful samples Allentoft et al. (2012). There is a theoretical relationship between time and DNA degradation,[4] although differences in environmental conditions complicates things. Samples subjected to different conditions are unlikely to predictably align to a uniform age-degradation relationship.[5] The environmental effects may even matter after excavation, as DNA decay rates may increase,[6] particularly under fluctuating storage conditions.[7] Even under the best preservation conditions, there is an upper boundary of 0.4-1.5 million years for a sample at around to contain sufficient DNA for contemporary sequencing technologies.[8]


You must realise that greatness related to power, position or wealth is transient. It is lost when power and position go. But goodness is respected always. Therefore dedicate your lives to goodness. What is goodness? It is living according to Dharma and justice, to love all and cherish faith in God, to help the needy and raise the lowly--all these constitute goodness.
                                                                                                                                                             Sri Sathya Sai Baba
Thanks given by:
 DNA | Mammoths, Neanderthals, and Your Ancestors || Radcliffe Institute
Lizabeth Cohen, Dean of the Radcliffe Institute and Howard Mumford Jones Professor of American Studies, Department of History, Harvard University

Janet Rich-Edwards
, Codirector of the Science Program, Radcliffe Institute; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Moderator: George Church
, Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School
John Hawks
, Vilas-Borghesi Distinguished Achievement Professor of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Beth Shapiro
, Associate Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz
Spencer Wells
, scientist, author, entrepreneur, and former explorer-in-residence and director of the Genographic Project at National Geographic
Thanks given by:

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