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The Black Mozart:Joseph Boulogne, Chevalier de Saint-George (1745–1799)
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Joseph Boulogne, Chevalier de Saint-George (1745–1799), a musician, athlete, and soldier, was among the most fascinating figures during the years at the end of France's old regime and during its age of revolution at the end of the eighteenth century.

Saint-George is known today as one of the major early contributors of African descent in the tradition of European classical music. He gained fame as a violinist, conductor, and composer; some of Europe's top composers created violin works with Saint-George in mind as the soloist, and he led the premieres of some of Franz Joseph Haydn's greatest symphonies. The music of Saint-George himself, long forgotten, has been successfully revived. In his own time, however, Saint-George was known for much more than music. A champion fencer as a young man, he was the object of often veiled and sometimes overt racial controversy. He survived two assassination attempts. In his later years he abandoned the aristocratic world of his upbringing to fight for revolutionary ideals, and he was an early supporter of racial equality in France and England.Saint-George is known today as one of the major early contributors of African descent in the tradition of European classical music. He gained fame as a violinist, conductor, and composer; some of Europe's top composers created violin works with Saint-George in mind as the soloist, and he led the premieres of some of Franz Joseph Haydn's greatest symphonies. The music of Saint-George himself, long forgotten, has been successfully revived. In his own time, however, Saint-George was known for much more than music. A champion fencer as a young man, he was the object of often veiled and sometimes overt racial controversy. He survived two assassination attempts. In his later years he abandoned the aristocratic world of his upbringing to fight for revolutionary ideals, and he was an early supporter of racial equality in France and England.

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