What causes the magnetopause to do this?
The magnetopause is the boundary between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind.
#1
The magnetopause is the abrupt boundary between a magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma. For planetary science, the magnetopause is the boundary between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind. The location of the magnetopause is determined by the balance between the pressure of the dynamic planetary magnetic field and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. As the solar wind pressure increases and decreases, the magnetopause moves inward and outward in response. Waves (ripples and flapping motion) along the magnetopause move in the direction of the solar wind flow in response to small-scale variations in the solar wind pressure and to Kelvin–Helmholtz instability.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetopause
https://www.brainyquote.com/topics/planetary-quotes

I read 'The High Frontier' in high school. I read it multiple times, and I was already primed. As soon as I read it, it made sense to me. It seemed very clear that planetary surfaces were not the right place for an expanding civilization inside our solar system.                                                                                                                                                                                               Jeff Bezos


The Magnetopause - Ying Zou

https://youtu.be/OW52paiLCWA
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